Some shots from last weekends car meet.
H A C H I R O K U
The 4A-GE was one of the earliest inline-4 engines to have both a DOHC 16 valve configuration (four valves per cylinder, two intake, two exhaust) and electronic fuel injection (EFI). The cylinder head was developed by Yamaha Motor Corporation. It is speculated that the 4A-GE is actually based on the Ford Cosworth BDA racing engine, reverse engineered by Toyota as the bore and stroke dimensions are similar and there are many similarities in the engine design, making it a reliable engine for motorsports applications. The reliability and performance of these engines has earned them a fair number of enthusiasts and a fan base as they are a popular choice for an engine swap into other Toyota cars such as the KE70 and KP61. New performance parts are still available for sale even today because of its strong fan base. Production of the various models of this version lasted for five generations, from 1983 through 1991 for 16-valve versions and the 5-valve 4A-GE lasted through 1998.
The first-generation 4A-GE which was introduced in 1983 replaced the 2T-G in most applications. This engine was identifiable via silver cam covers with the lettering on the upper cover painted black and blue, as well as the presence of three reinforcement ribs on the back side of the block. It was extremely light and strong for a production engine using an all-iron block, and produced 112 hp (84 kW) at 6600 rpm and 131 N·m (97 lb·ft) of torque at 4800 rpm in the American market. The use of an air flow meter (MAF) sensor, which restricted air flow slightly but produced cleaner emissions that conformed to the U.S. regulations, limited the power to 112 hp (84 kW) whereas the Japanese model — which used a manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor — produced 130 hp (97 kW).
Toyota designed the engine for performance; the valve angle was a relatively wide 50 degrees, which at the time was believed to be ideal for high power production. Today, it should be noted that more modern high-revving engines have decreased the valve angle to 20 to 25 degrees, which is now believed to be ideal for high-revving engines with high power per litre. The first generation 4A-GE is nicknamed the “bigport” engine because it had intake ports of a very large cross-sectional area. While the port cross-section was suitable for a very highly modified engine at very high RPM, it caused a considerable drop in low-RPM torque due to the decreased air speeds at those RPM. To compensate for the reduced air speed, the first-generation engines included the T-VIS feature, in which dual intake runners are fitted with butterfly valves that opened at approxmently 4200 rpm. The effect was that at lower RPM when the airspeed would normally be slow, four of the eight runners were closed, this forced the engine to draw in all its air through half the runners in the manifold. This raised the airspeed which caused better cylinder filling and also better fuel atomisation. This enabled the torque curve to still be intact at lower engine speeds, allowing for better performance across the entire speed band and a broad, flat torque curve around the crossover point. During rising engine speed, a slight lurch can occur at the crossover point and an experienced driver will be able to detect the shift in performance. Production of the first-generation engine model lasted through 1987.
The second-generation 4A-GE produced from 1987 to 1989 featured larger diameter bearings for the connecting-rod big ends (42 mm) and added four additional reinforcement ribs on the back of the engine block, for a total of seven. The T-VIS feature is maintained. It is visually similar to the first-generation engine and the power output is unchanged, but the upper cam cover now featured red and black lettering. The first- and second-generation engines are very popular with racers and tuners because of the ease of modification, simple design, and lightness. The T-VIS equipped model is an ideal candidate for the addition of a turbocharger because it contains the so-called “big-port head”, meaning the head had the large cross-sectional area intake ports.
The third-generation appeared in 1989 and was in production until 1991. This engine has the silver cam covers with the words only written in red, hence the nickname “red top”. Toyota increased the compression ratio from 9.4:1 to 10.3:1. To correct the air-speed problems of the earlier generations, the intake ports in this cylinder head were re-designed to have a smaller cross-section, and hence it has been nick-named the “smallport head”. This change in the intake ports negated the need for the earlier twin runner intake manifold and it was replaced with a single runner manifold. Additional engine modifications to extend life and reliability included under-piston cooling oil squirters, thicker connecting rods and other components. Also of note, the pistons were changed to accept a 20 mm fully floating gudgen pin unlike the 18 mm pressed-in pins of the earlier versions. All non-U.S. market 4A-GEs continued to use a MAP sensor, while all of the U.S.-market 4A-GE engines came with a MAF sensor. The only exception was the U.S.-market 1990-91 Geo Prizm GSi, which was equipped with the MAP. This change increased the power to 140 PS (138 hp/103 kW) at 7200 rpm with a torque of 149 N·m (110 lb·ft) at 4800 rpm.
The 4A-GE engine was first introduced in the 1983 Sprinter Trueno AE86 and the Corolla Levin AE86 sports version. The AE86 marked the end of the 4A-GE as a rear wheel drive (RWD or FR) mounted engine, alongside the RWD AE86/AE85 coupes a front wheel drive (FWD or FF) corolla (the AE82) was produced and all future Corollas/Sprinters were based around the FF layout. The engine was retired from North American Corollas in 1991, although it continued to be available in the Geo Prizm GSi (sold through Chevrolet dealerships) from 1990 to 1992.
Clarification: In the U.S. market, the 4A-GE engine was first used in the 1985 model year Corolla GT-S only, which is identified as an “AE88” in the VIN but uses the AE86 chassis code on the firewall as the AE88 is a “sub” version of the AE86. The 4A-GE engines for the 1985 model year are referred to as “blue top” as opposed to the later “red top” engines, because the paint color on the valve covers is different, to show the different engine revision, using different port sizes, different airflow metering, and other minor differences on the engine.
The American Spec AE86 (VIN AE88, or GT-S) carried the 4A-GE engine. In other markets, other designations were used. Much confusion exists, even among dealers, as to which models contained what equipment, especially since Toyota split the Corolla line into both RWD and FWD versions, and the GT-S designation was only well known as a Celica version at that time.
Toyota MR2 AW11: Mid-engine RWD
Corolla AE86 GT-S: RWD (often referred to as generic AE86 chassis group)
Corolla AE82 FX-16: FWD
Corolla AE92 GT-S: FWD
SE Sedan (North America): (RWD from 1983-87 and FWD from 1988-91)
Chevrolet Nova (based on Corolla AE82 chassis; only some 1988 model year Novas had the 4A-GE engine, rare)
Geo Prizm GSi (based on Toyota AE92 chassis; 1990–1992)
Engine displacement: 1.6 litres (1587 cc)
Layout: DOHC Inline-4 (Straight-4)
Bore and Stroke: 81 mm × 77 mm
Dry Weight (with T-50 gearbox): 154 kg (340 lb)
Valves: 16, 4 per each cylinder
Power: 115–140 hp (96–103 kW) @ 6600 rpm
Torque: 148 N·m (109 lb·ft) @ 5800 rpm
Redline: 7600 rpm
Fuel Delivery System: MPFI
Toyota sponsored the Champ Car Atlantic Championship from 1990 to 2005. A kit version of the 4A-GE from Toyota Racing Development was used to power Formula Atlantic cars during this period. This engine used a modified 16-valve head and produced approximately 240 horsepower (180 kW) at 8400 rpm, revving out to 10-12,000 rpm.